In 1668, Isaac Newton constructed by hand the first reflecting
telescope in history. It was only about 15 centimeters
in length but it performed as well as those of the time
of 2,5 meters, and it had nearly 40 increases.
He later made a second one with a 5 centimeter mirror,
and on the 11 of January, 1672, he presented it to the
Royal Society in London.
This telescope is conserved nowadays in Woolsthrope,
Newton's birthplace, and it is on this that this practically
identical replica has been made.
How to use: observation is made by applying the eye to
the lens located on one side of the tube. To focus the
image, screw or unscrew the nut.
Materials: Brass and beech wood.
Design: Isaac Newton, 1668.
Newton's disc is a cardboard disc with
different sectors colored red, orange, yellow, green, blue,
indigo and violet.
When turned quickly, the retina receives
the sensation of the seven colors of the spectrum simultaneously,
and the disc appears white. With this instrument one demonstrates
that white light can be broken down into its separate elements.
In addition, by means of red, blue and green discs we can
make different combinations and observe the resulting colors,
as Newton described in his book Optics
Materials: walnut wood and brass.
This invention has its foundation in a known physiological
phenomenon, retinal persistence, which causes the retina
of the eye to register an impression during a brief period
of time after the image itself has disappeared.
The zoetrope is a perfected version of the taumatrope,
invented in 1826 by J.A. Paris, and which consists of
a strip of drawings located on the inside of a horizontal
cylinder pierced by several slits. When it is spun by
the hand, the images are combined and the drawings appear
through the slits to be moving, due to retinal persistence.
This apparatus is considered the precursor of the cinematograph.
Materials: boxwood, brass.
ANAMORPHIC MIRROR |
Anamorphosis is a prospect technique and it consists to transforming an image that appears distorted from the usual point of view, but when it is reflected about a cylindrical, conical or pyramidal surface, the distortion disappears. Even if the anamorphosis term is introduced during the 17th century, its effects are known since the 15th century, since Leonardo Da Vinci already portrays it on his annotations. The distorted figure or anamorphism was a very popular toy during the 19th century.
In this piece, the transformation has been carried out about a figure in relief and we see how it acquires its natural form through the reflection in a cylindrical mirror. It is about a replica of the 18th century.
These prisms were designed by Newton in the XVII century,
and since then they have come to be used to show the decomposition
of light. To show this, a beam of white light is shone
through the prism in a darkened room and the result is
observed on the wall or a screen - a band in which the
colors that compose white light and that constitute the
spectrum appear: violet, indigo, green, yellow, orange
and red. This is because each color, having a different
frequency, presents a characteristic refractive index
that deflects at a different angle when crossing the faces
of the prism, so that each one occupies a position.
Materials: brass, copper, mahogany and methacrylate.
Materials: brass, copper, boxwood and methacrylate.
MICROSCOPE THE LEEWENHOEK
MICROSCOPE THE HOOKE
MICROSCOPE THE CULPEPER
In Holland 1674, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
saw that objects seen through a converging lens looked
to be of greater size. He constructed the first simple
microscope by making making the small lenses of shorter
focal length. This faithful redesign has a simple, spherical
lens with 100x magnification. Observation is somewhat
difficult due to the positioning of the eye.
Using this instrument, Leeuwenhoek discovered the first
microorganisms: globules of blood, several protozoos,
and bacteria. We recommend making the first viewing attempts
with filaments of pharmacy cotton and bread mould.
Materials: copper and brass
Dimensions: 12 cm in length
Robert Hooke's Microscope
In England 1665, Robert Hooke (1635-1703), without
Leeuwenhoek's knowledge, constructed the first compound
microscope and later wrote a detailed account of its contruction
in his book "Micrographia." The compound microscope
has two lenses, the objective and the eyeglass, with no
type of correction for the chromatic aberration. It provides
60x magnification and it is thought best for observing
opaque samples like rocks, minerals, weaves nonsectioned,
and superficial textures.
Materials: copper, brass, and leather
Dimensions: 16 cm in height
In England during 1720, Culpeper Edmund Culpeper
(1660-1738) developed a microscope with an innovative
tripod design and a mirror under the lense to allow better
illumination of the sample. This microscope is a scale
replica of a 1778 microscope in a private collection.
It has a compound eyeglass for better chromatic, spherical
correction and of depth of field. It is designed to work
with translucent samples and we therefore recommend the
purchase of specific biological samples. The magnification
of 100x is sufficient to observe vegetal structures, etc.
Materials: copper and brass
Dimensions: 18 cm in height
MAGIC LANTERN SECTIONAL
It is an optical device, precursor of the film projector,
created towards 1640 by the German Jesuit Athanasius Kircher.
From the design of a dark camera, who received images
of the exterior making them visible in the interior, Kircher
thought about inverting the process to take the images
inside towards outside.
It is then a dark camera with a game of lenses and a sliding
support in which transparencies painted on plaques of
glass are placed. These images light up with a lamp of
oil and, so that the smoke can have exit, he is endowed
to the ensemble with a showy chimney.
The designs keep varying from its invention until an important
jump takes place with the incorporation of the incandescent
lamp and the lamp arc. Little afterwards the photograph
(Niépce, 1826) appears where the painted transparencies
are replaced by slides, and only in a few more crossings
people arrive to the cinematographic projector (brothers
The magic lantern that we present him is the model "Lantern
Carrée" of Lapierre, France, towards 1880.
Functional facsimile, light source of gasoline or electrical,
with achromatic lens of 50 mm.
Materials: zinc beaten by hand, brass, lenses of glass.